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Introduction to Upanishads

Basics of Vedanta, Purana & Philosophical Schools

In this article, I will discuss three main topics, primarily focusing on the introduction of Upanishads:

  • What is Vedanta or Upanishads? Exploring the essence of Vedantic texts, their diversity, the extent of original work, and the existing material available today.
  • Understanding Puranas or Upa-Puranas, their classification, and significance within Hindu literature.
  • An exploration of different Darshan Schools or Philosophical Schools in Hinduism.

Introduction to Upanishads

The Upanishads (also called Vedanta), a collection of ancient texts within Hinduism, stand as a testament to profound philosophical inquiry. These texts, though shrouded in mystery regarding their exact count, are believed to correspond to each branch of the Vedas. With the Rig Veda boasting 21 branches, the Yajur Veda 109, the Sama Veda a staggering 1000, and the Atharva Veda 50, scholars estimate the existence of approximately 1180 Upanishads.

Originally, the Vedas were an extensive corpus without divisions, posing a challenge for their comprehensive study. To facilitate learning, the Vedas were organized into Sakhas, each containing a Samhita, Brahmana, Aranyaka, and Upanishad, and entrusted to different families for preservation through generations.

Despite misconceptions about the Upanishads being later additions, they are integral to the Vedic teachings, serving as their conclusive and paramount segment. Their philosophical depth transcends religious boundaries, offering universal wisdom that extends beyond the confines of Hinduism.

Cardinal or Main Upanishads

Adi Sankaracharya, while preparing to write his commentary (Bhashyam) on the Brahma Sutras, sought substantial reference material. During this pursuit, he carefully selected ten Upanishads that possessed profound philosophical depth and relevance. These ten Upanishads proved to be exceptionally significant and comprehensive for his commentary on the Brahma Sutras. Consequently, these specific Upanishads earned the title of “cardinal” due to their pivotal role as foundational texts, serving as essential references in Adi Sankaracharya’s interpretation of the Brahma Sutras.

  1. Ishavasya Upanishad: It is a very succint summary of Indian philosophy that explains life itself.

  2. Kena Upanishad: Kenopanishad derives its name from the word Kena, meaning ‘by whom’. It belongs to the Talavakara Bahmana of Sama Veda and is therefore also referred to as Talavakara Upanishad. In short, it says that “The One power that illumines everything and every one is indivisible. It is the Ear behind the ears, Mind behind the mind, Speech behind speech, the Vital Life behind life. The ears cannot hear it; it is what makes the ears hear. The eyes cannot see it; it is what makes the eyes see. You cannot speak about it; it is what makes you speak. The mind cannot imagine it; it is what makes the mind think. It is different from what all we know; yet it is not known either. Those who feel they know Him, know Him not. Those who know that anything amenable to the senses is not Brahman, they know it best. When it is known as the innermost witness of all cognitions, whether sensation, perception or thought, then it is known. One who knows thus reaches immortality.

  3. Kathopanishad: The Kathopanishad is divided into six Vallis. Valli literally means a creeper. A Valli, like a creeper, is attached to the Sakhas or Branches of the Veda. This Upanishad is also divided into two Adhyayas (chapters) of three Vallis each. This is one of the most beautiful Upanishads, in which the eternal truths are given in the form of a narrative. The narrative is taken from Taittiriya Brahmana (3-11-8), with some variations. The same story is told in the Taittiriya Brahmana, the only difference being that in the Brahmana, freedom from death and birth is obtained by a peculiar performance of a sacrifice, while in the Upanishad, it is obtained by knowledge only.

  4. Aitareya Upanishad: The Aitareya Upanishad is one of the oldest of the Upanishads. It belongs to the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rig Veda. It is divided into three chapters and contains thirty three verses. This Upanishad deals with the process of creation.

  5. Brihadaranyaka Upanishad: Brihadaranyaka Upanishad means the “great forest-book”. This Upanishad is one of the oldest of all the Upanishads. It consists of three sections or kandas: the Madhu kanda, the Yajnavalkya or the Muni kanda and the Khila kanda. Here the Brahman is portrayed as universal and undifferentiated consciousness. The doctrine of the indescribability of the absolute and the doctrine of ‘Neti, Neti’ are explained. This Upanishad concludes by stating the three virtues that one should practice, i.e. self-restraint, giving, and compassion.

  6. Prashna Upanishad: In Sanskrit, Prashna means ‘question’. This book consists of six questions and their answers, hence the name. It is in a question-answer format. Except the first and last questions, all other questions are actually a group of smaller sub-questions. As narrated in the beginning of this Upanishad, six pupils interested in knowing divinity or Brahman come to the sage Pippalada and ask questions of great spiritual importance. Pippalada asks them to take up a penance of one year. Upon completion of the penance, they again come to the sage and ask questions, and then the sage answers their questions.

  7. Mandukya Upanishad: For the very reason that it explains the esoteric meaning of the fundamental syllable Aum of Hindu spiritual tradition, the Upanishad has been extolled greatly. The Muktikopanishad, which talks about all other Upanishads, says that if a person cannot afford to study all the hundred and more Upanishads, it will be enough to read just the Māndūkya Upanishad. According to Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, in this Upanishad, we find the fundamental approach to the attainment of reality by the road of introversion and ascent from the sensible and changing, through the mind which dreams, through the soul which thinks, to the divine within but above the soul.

  8. Taittireeya Upanishad: The Taittireeya Upanishad belongs to the Taittireeya school of the Yajur Veda. It is divided into three sections called Vallis. The first is the Siksa Valli. Siksa is the first of the six Vedangas (limbs or auxiliaries of the Veda); it is the science of phonetics and pronunciation. The second is the Brahmananda Valli and the third is the Bhrugu Valli. These two deal with the knowledge of the Supreme Self, or ‘paramatma-jnana’.

  9. Chandogya Upanishad: Along with Brhadaranyaka Upanishad, the Chandogyopanishad is an ancient source of principal fundamentals for Vedanta philosophy. Considering the number of references made to this Upanishad in Brahma sutras, this Upanishad is given special importance in Vedanta philosophy. Important spiritual practices like Dahara Vidya and Shandilya Vidya are its speciality.

  10. Mundakopanishad: This Upanishad begins with an Invocation that the eye may see auspicious things, the ear may hear auspicious sounds, and that life may be spent in the contemplation of the Lord. The teaching of this Upanishad is referred to as Brahmavidya, either because it describes first the message of Hiranyagarbha, the casual Brahma, or because the message relates the glory of Brahmam. This Upanishad speaks of Brahmavidya as the mystery which only those with shaven heads and those who go through a rite of having Fire on the shaven head can understand. So, it is called Mundaka, or shaven Head. Apart from this, this Upanishad is honoured as the crest of all, since it expounds the very essence of Brahma Jnana. It is assigned to the Fourth Veda, the Atharvana.

Remaining Upanishads:

The other 98 Upanishads are again classified according to their content as follows. They are General (of common interest), Saiva (dealing with Lord Shiva), Saktha (dealing with the divine mother Shakthi), Vaishnava (dealing with Lord Vishnu), Sanyasa (dealing with renunciation) and Yoga (dealing with Yogic practices) Upanishads.

General Upanishads:

  1. Svetasvatara Upanishad: This Upanishad is taught by a sage called Svetasvatara. Its main emphasis is on the teaching of Sankhya Yoga and the philosophy of illusion (Maya).

  2. Garbho Upanishad: This Upanishad is taught by sage Pippalada and deals with the growth of foetus in the womb. It also gives the number of different parts of the body, like the bones, nerves, flesh etc.

  3. Maitrayani Upanishad: This Upanishad tells us about the penance of a king called Brahadratha. The king asked the sage Sakanya about the feeling of desire in this meaningless world. Sage Sakanya relates to him what had been told to him by Sage Maithreya. He teaches him the great science of Brahma Vidya. Finally he tells him that the mind and illusion are responsible for this contradiction.

  4. Kaushitaki Upanishad: This Upanishad is taught by Sage Chithra to Sage Udhalaka and his son, Shwethakethu. It deals with the science of the soul. The temporary nature of rituals and good deeds and permanent nature of doing everything without desire is emphasized. It also tells the need for a father to give up all his personality and knowledge to his son and enter Sanyasa.

  5. Subala Upanishad: This is the teaching of Sage Angiras to Sage Raikwa. It tries to answer the question of the time and method of creation of the world. It also tries to find out the properties of the soul of beings and discusses several aspects of philosophy.

  6. Mantrika Upanishad: It deals with the properties of Brahmam. It explains that whatever is produced, vanishes, and then is reproduced. It concludes that the one who knows it well is the Brahman.

  7. Sarvasara Upanishad: Defines and explains several words like Katha, Bandha, Annamaya etc, which occur constantly in Upanishadic philosophy.

  8. Niralamba Upanishad: It is an independent text of Hindu philosophy. It tries to investigate what is Brahmam and concludes that the Sanyasi has a better chance of attaining salvation by following the proper methods.

  9. Sukarahasya Upanishad: This Upanishad is supposed to have been taught to Sage Suka, so that he would understand the philosophy of salvation. It contains and extensive explanation of the words and ideas that describe this philosophy.

  10. Vajrasuchika Upanishad: This Upanishad investigates and tries to answer the question, “Who is a Brahmin?” It also says that caste does not come by birth.

  11. Atmaprabodha Upanishad: Expounds about meditation on Pranava and the great Vaishnava Mantra, “Om Narayanaya Nama.” It also defines and discusses the identities of an evolved soul.

  12. Skanda Upanishad: Takes a conciliatory stand between Shaiva and Vaishnava and concludes that both are the same.

  13. Mudgala Upanishad: This Upanishad aims at explaining the mantras of the great Purusha suktham.

  14. Paingala Upanishad: This is taught by Sage Yagnavalkya to Sage Paingala. It gives an explanation of the term ‘Kaivalya’. It also attempts to explain the Maha Vakyas of the Vedas like ‘Aham Brahmasmi’, as well the duties of Jnanis.

  15. Mahat Upanishad: Describes the initial creation of the universe, starting From Lord Narayana to Lord Brahma. After this, there is a discussion between Sage Suka and King Janaka regarding the creation of the Samsara. This is followed by a discussion of several aspects of philosophy between Sage Nidhaka and his guru, Sage Ripu. It explains that the Sastras are burden for a Jnani, Jnana is a burden to those who are attached, and so on.

  16. Sariraka Upanishad: Talks about the different aspects of the human body, including states of knowledge.

  17. Akshamalika Upanishad: This Upanishad is taught by Guha to Lord Brahma. It discusses in detail about how to choose the mala (rosary) for use in meditation.

  18. Ekakshara Upanishad: This is an Upanishad which deals with the letter, ‘Om.’ This is more of a prayer towards ‘Om.’

  19. Surya Upanishad: Tells about Surya Angirasa Mantra and Gayatri, which is a prayer to the Sun, and further goes on to illustrate the ashtakshara to worship Lord Surya.

  20. Akshi Upanishad: Contains the prayer of sage Sankruthi to Lord Surya which contains the Chakshushmathi Mantra. This is followed by the teaching of Brahma Vidya by Surya.

  21. Adhyatma Upanishad: This is initially taught by Sadashiva to Sage Apantharathamas. It says that there is nothing but Atma and the feeling of existence of others is only illusion.

  22. Savitri Upanishad: Explains who is Savithri and the difference between Savitha and Savithri. It also recites the Savithri Mantra.

  23. Atma Upanishad: Deals with various aspects of Atma and how a Brahma Jnani does not see anything except Atma.

  24. Katarudra Upanishad: This is the teaching of Brahma Vidya by Lord Brahma himself to the Devas. The treatment is philosophical.

  25. Panchabrahma Upanishad: Details the five stages by which Para Brahmam was evolved.

  26. Pranaagnihotra Upanishad: This Upanishad deals with the Sarrera Yagna, or the sacrifice to the body. It lists out all the mantras that are to be chanted before eating food. The usual mantras that a Brahmin chants before eating are contained in this Upanishad.

  27. Muktika Upanishad: This Upanishad is the Teaching of Lord Rama to Hanuman. It tells about the Vedas, Vedangas and Kaivalya, and also summarizes the Hindu Vedanta. The list of 108 Upanishads is also given in this Upanishad.

Saiva Upanishads:

  1. Kaivalya Upanishad: In this Upanishad, Brahma teaches the knowledge of Brahmam to sage Aswalayana. Though Adi Sankara wrote commentaries only for ten Upanishads, he also considered this to be an important Upanishad. It deals with the state where the person is himself. The path shown is through meditation and devotion, keeping the person as the plank and considering Om as the stick which rotates on the plank and gives out the light of fire.

  2. Atharvasira Upanishad: It emphasizes the greatness of the holy letter “Om.” It also explains that the form of Lord Rudhra is the form of Pranava.

  3. Atharvasikha Upanishad: This is taught by Sage Adharva to great sages like Pippaladha, Angiras and Sanathkumara. It emphasizes the need and benefits of the meditation of the Pranava.

  4. Brahajjabala Upanishad: This Upanishad was told by Kalagni Rudra to Sage Busundi. It deals in detail with the method of preparation of holy ash (Vibhuthi) and the method of wearing it.

  5. Kaalagnirudra Upanishad: It talks in detail about the method of wearing holy ash (Vibhuthi) along with mantras for wearing the same. This was taught by Kalagni Rudra to the great sage, Sanathkumara.

  6. Dakshinamurthi Upanishad: Dakshinamurthi is the ‘teacher form’ of Shiva in which he teaches without talking. This Upanishad gives the Dakshinamurthi Mantra and the method of practicing it.

  7. Sarabha Upanishad: Sarabha is the animal, man and bird form of Lord Shiva. It is believed that he took this form to control the anger of Vishnu when he took the form of Narasimha. This Upanishad talks about Lord Sarabha.

  8. Pasupathabramopanishad: Talks about Lord Shiva’s aspect of Pasupathi (the Lord of all living things). Discusses how the entire universe is really one and there is no differentiation.

  9. Rudrahrudaya Upanishad: Shuka asks his father which God exists in all devas and in which God all devas exist. The answer, Rudra, is this Upanishad.

  10. Bhasmajabala Upanishad: Expresses how Vibhuthi has to be prepared and also the daily duties of a Brahmana. This is the teaching Lord Shiva to Jabala Busunda.

  11. Rudrakshajabala Upanishad: This is the teaching of Kalagni Rudra to Sage Busunda, and deals exclusively with Rudraksha.

  12. Ganapati Upanishad: Starts with a prayer to Lord Ganapathi and gives the Ganapathi Mantra. It describes how the worship of Ganapathi is to be performed.

  13. Jabali Upanishad: Sage Jabali tells Sage Pippalada about Lord Pasupathi. The need and method of wearing Vibhuti (holy ash) is given in detail.

Saktha Upanishads:

  1. Sita Upanishad: Brahma tells the Devas about who is Sita. He tells them that she is the Adhara Shakthi (the basis which is the foundation) in the feminine form. He also tells about her different forms.

  2. Tripuratapini Upanishad: Explains the Sathakshari Mantra for meditating on Tripura, the Goddess Parvathy. Several great manthras like Gayatri, and Panchadasakshari are a part of this. It also discusses Srividya Upasana.

  3. Annapurna Upanishad: Sage Rupu tells Sage Nidhaka about Devi Annapurna. He also teaches him the Annapurna Mantra. This is followed by teaching of philosophical aspects like Maya, Yoga and Mukthi.

  4. Devi Upanishad: The Devi tells the Devas who she is in this Upanishad. It lists the Panchadasakshari and Navakshari mantras to worship her.

  5. Tripura Upanishad: Talks about Sri Chakra and the worship of the devi through the right and left methods.

  6. Bhavana Upanishad: Discusses one important aspect of Sri Vidya Upasana.

  7. Saubhagyalakshmi Upanishad: Bhagawan Narayana tells about the Shakthi from whom every God originated and teaches the devas the worship of Saubhagyalakshmi.

  8. Sarasvatirahasya Upanishad: This Upanishad is taught by Sage Asvalayana to the other sages. He teaches them the ten Saraswathi mantras and methods of worshipping her.

  9. Bahuvracha Upanishad: Talks in detail about the existence of Shakthi from whom all gods and knowledge originated. Gives hints of worship of Sri Vidhya.

Vaishnava Upanishads:

  1. Narayana Upanishad: Describes the principle of Tripath Narayana. It also introduces the Narayana ashtakshara Mantra and describes the benefits of chanting it.

  2. Nrsimhatapini Upanishad: It has two parts. In the Poorva (first) part, it speaks in detail about the greatness of Lord Narasimha. It also has the great king of mantras, called the Narasimha Mantra, and depicts in detail how to meditate on it. In the Uthara part, it talks about the greatness of Pranava and the Narsimha Raja Mantra. It gives a detailed method of meditating on Lord Narasimha.

  3. Ramarahasya Upanishad: Explains that Lord Rama is Brahma Taraka and expounds various mantras for worshipping him. Also gives yantras for worshipping Lord Rama.

  4. Ramatapini Upanishad: There are two parts, the Poorva Thapini and the second Uthara Thapini. It talks about the greatness of the word, “Rama”, as well as Rama Yantra, which is similar to the Sri Chakra. It also discusses the belief that Lord Shiva tells the Tharaka Mantra in the ears of all people dying in Varanasi and the method of worship of Rama.

  5. Vasudeva Upanishad: Explains what Urdhwa Pundra (the sign worn by Vaishnavites) is and the rules for wearing it.

  6. Avyakta Upanishad: Deals with the creation of clearly defined things from that unclear past. Tells how Parajapati came from Avayaktha and went on to create the world. It also gives a mantra to worship Lord Vishnu.

  7. Tarasara Upanishad: Narrates about the holiness of Kurukshethra, Tharaka Mantra and Pranava and illustrates the method of worship of Lord Narayana.

  8. Gopalatapini Upanishad: Sages approach Lord Brahma to know the procedure to worship Krishna. What he tells them is contained in this Upanishad. The Upasana Mantra of Govinda is also given here.

  9. Krishna Upanishad: The sages, when they meet Rama, wanted to embrace him. He caused them to be born as Gopis and himself took the avatara of Krishna, so that they could embrace him. This book discusses who were born as what in Krishnavatara.

  10. Hayagreeva Upanishad: Brahma tells Narada that whoever meditates and worships Lord Hayagreeva gets to know the Brahma vidya. The mantra for worship of Lord Hayagreeva is given here.

  11. Dathathreya Upanishad: Depicts the method of meditation and worship of Dathathreya through the Dathathreya Mantra.

  12. Garuda Upanishad: The method of meditation and worship of Garuda, the vehicle of Lord Vishnu is given here.

  13. Kali santarana Upanishad: Talks about how the evils of the Kali age are to be crossed. The sixteen letter prayer on Rama would help one in doing this.

Sanyasa Upanishads:

  1. Brahmo Upanishad: Tells us about how the great sage of wisdom comes out of all mundane things and lives a life where there is no need for rituals and no differences exist. The Mantra for changing Yagnopavita occurs in this Upanishad.

  2. Jabala Upanishad: This is compiled by Sage Jabala. This gives more emphasis on mediation and the chanting of Rudra. The importance of concentrating between the centres of eyes is stressed here.

  3. Arunya Upanishad: This Upanishad deals with the teaching of Prajapathi to sage Aaruni. It gives in detail the rules of life that are to be followed by a Brahmachari and a Sanyasi.

  4. Paramahamsa Upanishad: It deals with the discussion between Sage Narada and God on who is a paramahamsa (sanyasi at an advanced stage) and methods to identify him.

  5. Maitreyi Upanishad: It is the teaching of Lord Parameshwara to sage Maithreya. To a large extent, what is given in Maithrayani Upanishad is repeated. In addition, God describes to him in detail about his formless form.

  6. Nirvana Upanishad: Describes the Sanyasa marga involving Nirvana (nudity) and how the people follow it.

  7. Narada Parivrajaka Upanishad: This is the teaching of Narada to the Souunaka Sages. It discusses the methods to attain salvation, the rules to be followed by a Sanyasi, and the time when a person should enter Sanyasa. It also talks about Karma Sanyasa.

  8. Bhikshuka Upanishad: It defines the different types of Sanyasis like Kuttesaka, Bahoodhaka, Hamsa and Parama Hamsa.

  9. Turiyatita Upanishad: It is taught by Lord Narayana to Lord Brahma and talks about the rules of the life of an Avadhootha.

  10. Sanyasa Upanishad: Elucidates who can take Sanyasa and what is the procedure.

  11. Kundika Upanishad: Explains all the things a Sanyasi should posses and how he should behave.

  12. Parabrahma Upanishad: Explains what is Yagnopavitha as well as Shika, for the sanyasis as well as people of the world. It also gives clearly the total length of the Upavitha. For the sanyasi, it is the pranava which acts as Yagnopavitha and Shika.

  13. Avadhuta Upanishad: Dathathreya teaches sage Sankrithi as to who is Avadhootha and how he should behave.

  14. Yajnavalkya Upanishad: The Upanishad reveals when to assume sanyasa and also the properties of a sanyasi.

  15. Saatyayani Upanishad: The mind becomes the reason for attachment and salvation. The Saatyayani Upanishad relates that a real Brahmin should search for Brahmam. It also explains that one taking sanyasa gives redemption for three generation of manes.

Yoga/Sankhya Upanishads:

  1. Shwethaswadhara Upanishad: This Upanishad is taught by a sage called Swethaswadhara. More emphasis is given in teaching Sankhya Yoga and the philosophy of illusion (Maya)

  2. Hamsoupanishad: This talks about meditation on Hamsa Mantra and is being taught by Sage Gauthama to Sage Sanathkumara. The method of meditating on the Hamsa Mantra is fully described here.

  3. Amrutha bindu Upanishad: It gives the knowledge of athma in the tasty form of nectar and gives it as briefly as a dot. It talks about what is Brahmam, and other concepts of Hindu Philosophy.

  4. Amruthanadopanishad: This describes the way to chant the holy letter ‘Om’ in great detail. It is referred to as a nectar-like letter in this text.

  5. Kshurikoupanishad: Kshrika means knife. It is so called because it cuts ignorance using the knife of wisdom. This is an Upanishad which in detail describes Yoga and its practice.

  6. Thejo Bindupanishad: This Upanishad is the teaching of Lord Paramashiva to his son, Subrahmanya. It talks in detail about Yogic practices, defines Chinmathra Swaroopa, Athmanubhava, Jeevan Muktha etc.

  7. Nada Bindu Upanishad: Discusses in detail the meditation on Omkara (pranava). The correct method of meditation and some problems, which may occur, are pointed out.

  8. Dhyana Bindu Upanishad: The meditation on Pranava and Ajabha Gayathri is dealt in detail along with the method involved.

  9. Brahma Vidhyoupanishad: Teaches methods of attaining Brahma through meditation. Emphasizes the role of a guru and explains why Sruthi is more important than Pramana.

  10. Yoga Thathwopanishad: This is the teaching of Lord Vishnu to Lord Brahma. It details out the yogic practice. It also enumerates the stages in Yoga, defines them and how to recognize them.

  11. Trisiki Brahmanopanishad: This is the teaching of Lord Soorya to a Brahmin called Trishiki Brahmana. He clears his doubts about the definition of the body, soul, Karana and yogic practice.

  12. Yoga Choodamani Upanishad: Tells about Yogic practice involving Ajaba Gayatri. Describes the seats of Yoga, how to wake up the Kundalani and reach her up to Brahma Randra.

  13. Mandala Brahmanoupanishad: This is the teaching of Sun God to his disciple, Yagna Valkya. This deals with the principle of the soul through yogic practice. Definitions of various terms used in Yoga is also given. Tells in detail about Yogic practice and tells us about what is Sambhavi Mudhra.

  14. Sandilyopanishad: This is taught by Sage Atharvana to sage Sandilya. It deals with Ashtangayoga and Brahma Vidhya.

  15. Yogashikopanishad: This is the teaching of Lord Maheswara to Lord Brahma. It deals with subjects like Mukthi, Shakthi, Nadha, Chaithanya and Yoga.

  16. Yoga kudalinyupanishad: Talks about Kundalani and yogic practice.

  17. Sri Jabaladarsanopanishad: This is the teaching of Lord Dathathreya to his disciple sage Sankriti about how the Yoga should be done, in great detail.

  18. Mahavakyopanishad: Confirms that the knowledge “That this Sun is Brahma” would be realized by chanting of Ajapa Gayathri. Explains the merger of mind with Brhama.

  19. Varahopanishad: Talks about the Brahma Vidya of the body of Varaha. Lord Vishnu as Varaha tells how he should be meditated upon and worshipped. Also deals in detail about the stages of Yoga.

Upnishads are Part of Vedas

Rig Veda

  1. Aitareya
  2. Akshamala
  3. Atmabodha
  4. Bah vracha
  5. Kaushitaki
  6. Mudgala
  7. Nadabindu
  8. Nirvana
  9. Tripura

Sama Ved

  1. Arunika
  2. Avyakta
  3. Chhandogya
  4. Jabaladarsana
  5. Jabali
  6. Kena
  7. Kundika
  8. Mahat
  9. Maitrayani
  10. Maitreyi
  11. Rudrakshajabala
  12. Vajrasuchi
  13. Vasudeva
  14. Yogachudamani

Krishna Yajur

  1. Akshi
  2. Amritabindhu
  3. Amritanada
  4. Avadhuta
  5. Brahma
  6. Brahmavidya
  7. Dakshinamurti
  8. Dhyanabindhu
  9. Ekakshara
  10. Garbha
  11. Kaivalya
  12. Kalagnirudra
  13. Kalisantarana
  14. Katha
  15. Katharudra
  16. Kshurika
  17. Narayana
  18. Panchabrahma
  19. Pranaagnihotra
  20. Rudrahrudhaya
  21. Sukharahasya
  22. Taittiriya
  23. Tejobindhu
  24. Varaha
  25. Yogakundalini
  26. Yogasikha
  27. Yogatattva

Sukla Yajur

  1. Adhyatma
  2. Advayataraka
  3. Bhikshuka
  4. Brahadaranyaka
  5. Isavasya
  6. Jabala
  7. Mandalabrahmana
  8. Mantrika
  9. Muktika
  10. Niralamba
  11. Paingala
  12. ParamaHamsa
  13. Tarasara
  14. Trisikhibrahmana
  15. Turiyatita
  16. Yajnavalkya

Atharva Veda

  1. Annapurna
  2. Atharvasikha
  3. Atharvasira
  4. Atma
  5. Bhasmajabala
  6. Bhavana
  7. Brahajjabala
  8. Dattatreya
  9. Devi
  10. Ganapati
  11. Garuda
  12. Gopalatapini
  13. Krishna
  14. Maandukya
  15. Mahavakhya
  16. Mundaka
  17. Narada Parivrajaka
  18. Nrsimhatapini
  19. Parabrahma
  20. Paramahamsaparivrajaka
  21. Pasupatabrahma
  22. Prasna
  23. Ramarahasya
  24. Ramatapini
  25. Sandilya
  26. Tribadvibhutimahanarayana
  27. Tripuratapini

Summary of Hindu Schools & their Work

School Classification Philosophers Texts Concepts Originated Further Development
Samkhya dualism, atheism Kapila, Iśvarakṛṣṇa, Vachaspati Misra, Guṇaratna more.. Samkhya Sutra, Samkhya Karika, Sāṁkhya tattvakaumudī more.. Purusha, Prakriti, Guṇa, Satkāryavāda absorbed into Yoga
Yoga spiritual practice Patañjali, Yajnavalkya, Vyasa Yoga Sutras, Yoga Yajnavalkya, Samkhya pravacana bhasya Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana, Samadhi Bhakti Yoga, Hatha yoga
Nyaya logic, analytic philosophy Aksapada Gautama, Vātsyāyana, Udayana, Jayanta Bhatta more.. Nyāya Sūtras, Nyāya Bhāṣya, Nyāya Vārttika more.. Pratyakṣa, Anumāna, Upamāna, Anyathakyati vada, Niḥśreyasa more.. Navya-Nyāya
Vaiseshika atomism Kanada, Praśastapāda, Śridhara’s Nyāyakandalī more.. Vaiseshika Sutra, Padārtha dharma saṁgraha, Daśapadārtha śāstra more.. Padārtha, Dravya, Sāmānya, Viśeṣa, Samavāya, Paramāṇu merged with Nyaya
Mīmāṃsā exegesis, philology Jaimini, Kumārila Bhaṭṭa, Prabhākara more.. Purva Mimamsa Sutras, Mimamsasutra bhāshyam more.. Apaurusheyatva, Arthāpatti, Anuapalabdhi, Satahprāmāṇya vāda eclipsed by Vedanta
Pāṇini Darśana linguistics, philosophy of language Pāṇini, Bhartṛhari, Kātyāyana Vākyapadīya, Mahabhashya, Vārttikakāra Sphoṭa, Ashtadhyayi Classical Sanskrit
Advaita monism, non-dualism Gaudapada, Adi Shankara, Madhusudana Saraswati, Vidyaranya more.. Prasthanatrayi, Avadhuta Gita, Ashtavakra Gita, Pañcadaśī more.. Mahavakya, Sādhana Chatuṣṭaya, three orders of reality, Vivartavada Shuddhadvaita
Vishisht advaita qualified monism, panentheism Yamunacharya, Ramanuja more.. Siddhitrayam, Sri Bhasya, Vedartha Sangraha Hita, Antarvyāpi, Bahuvyāpi more.. Swaminarayan Hinduism
Dvaita dualism, theology Madhvacharya, Jayatirtha, Vyasatirtha, Raghavendra Swami AnuVyakhana, Brahma Sutra Bahshya, Sarva Shāstrārtha Sangraha, Tattva prakashika, Nyaya Sudha, Nyayamruta, Tarka Tandava, DwaitaDyumani Prapacha, Mukti-yogyas, Nitya-samsarins, Tamo-yogyas Vaishnavism
Achintya Bheda Abheda inconceivable simultaneous oneness and difference Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Six Goswamis of Vrindavana, Visvanatha Chakravarti, Krishnadasa Kaviraja, Baladeva Vidyabhushana, more.. Bhagavata Purana, Bhagavad Gita, Sat Sandarbhas, Govinda Bhashya, Chaitanya Charitamrita, Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu Sambandha, Abhidheya, Prayojana (Relationship, Process, Ultimate Goal) Gaudiya Vaishnava Vedanta(G.V.V), Bhakti
Pashupata theism, spiritual practice Haradattacharya, Lakulish Gaṇakārikā, Pañchārtha bhāshyadipikā, Rāśikara bhāshya Pashupati, eight pentads Shaiva Bhakti
Shaiva Siddhanta theistic dualism Haradattacharya, Lakulish Shaiva Āgama, Śrimat Kiraņ, Rauravatantra, Mrigendra Charya, Mantramārga, Rodha Śakti  
Kashmir Shaivism theistic monism, idealism Sadyojyoti, Meykandar, Aghorasiva Shiva Sutras of Vasugupta, Tantraloka Citi, Mala, Upaya, Anuttara, Aham, Svatantrya Rasayana
Raseśvara alchemy Vasugupta, Abhinavagupta, Jayaratha,Govinda Bhagavat, Sarvajña Rāmeśvara Rasārṇava, Rasahṛidaya, Raseśvara siddhānta Pārada, three modes of mercury  

Summary of Hindu Puranas

Main Puranas

  1. Agni : 15,400 verses
  2. Bhagavata : 18,000 verses
  3. Bhavishya : 14,500 verses
  4. Brahma : 10,000 verses
  5. Brahmanda : 12,000 verses
  6. Brahmavaivarta : 17,000 verses
  7. Garuda : 19,000 verses
  8. Harivamsa : 16,000 verses
  9. Kurma : 17,000 verses
  10. Linga : 11,000 verses
  11. Markandeya : 09,000 verses
  12. Matsya : 14,000 verses
  13. Narada : 25,000 verses
  14. Padma : 55,000 verses
  15. Shiva : 24,000 verses
  16. Skanda : 81,100 verses
  17. Vamana : 10,000 verses
  18. Varaha : 24,000 verses
  19. Vayu : 24,000 verses
  20. Vishnu : 23,000 verses


  1. Sanat-kumara :
  2. Narasimha :
  3. Brihan-naradiya :
  4. Siva-rahasya :
  5. Durvasa :
  6. Kapila :
  7. Vamana :
  8. Bhargava :
  9. Varuna :
  10. Kalika :
  11. Samba :
  12. Nandi :
  13. Surya :
  14. Parasara :
  15. Vasishtha :
  16. Devi-Bhagavata :
  17. Ganesha :
  18. Mudgala :
  19. Hamsa :

Purana Classification based on Deity : :

  • Vaiṣṇava Puranas: : Vishnu Purana, Bhagavata Purana, Nāradeya Purana, Garuda Purana, Padma Purana, Varaha Purana, Vāmana Purana, Kūrma Purana, Matsya Purana, Kalki Purana :
  • Brāhma Puranas: : Brahma Purana, Brahmānda Purana, Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Mārkandeya Purana, Bhavishya Purana, :
  • Śaiva Puranas: : Shiva Purana, Linga Purana, Skanda Purana, Agni Purana, Vāyu Purana :

Purana Classification based on Prakriti Guna

  • Sattva (“truth; purity”) : Vishnu Purana, Bhagavata Purana, Naradeya Purana, Garuda Purana, Padma Purana, Varaha Purana
  • Rajas (“dimness; passion”) : Brahmanda Purana, Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Markandeya Purana, Bhavishya Purana, Vamana Purana, Brahma Purana
  • Tamas (“darkness; ignorance”) : Matsya Purana, Kurma purana, Linga Purana, Shiva Purana, Skanda Purana, Agni Purana :
  • Conclusion:

    The Upanishads, embedded within the Vedic tradition, epitomize the pinnacle of philosophical exploration. Far from being mere appendages, they form the essence of Vedic teachings, embodying the ultimate goal of spiritual understanding. While rituals and ceremonies found in the Samhitas and Brahmanas cater to the material welfare of society, the Upanishads and Aranyakas speak to seekers who have transcended mundane life, delving deep into philosophical truths.

These sacred texts, revered across cultures and religions, elucidate profound truths that traverse the boundaries of religious dogma. They symbolize the inclusivity of Hinduism, offering teachings tailored to diverse spiritual inclinations, from the worship of ancestors to the pursuit of profound nondual philosophy. The Upanishads remain a timeless repository of wisdom, inviting seekers to explore the essence of existence and the depths of universal truth.